Field status variant is the collection of field status groups. Field status group refers to status of all fields which are available for input while document posting.
Field status variant is assigned to company code. All field status groups which belong to field status variant are available for assignment to GL master in the company code.
Field status group is assigned to general ledger account.
Field status variant--> Field status group--> fields with status
When document is posted to the GL account, then input fields behave as per their status in field status group.
Suppress: The field will not appear in input screen while posting document.
Required: Document can not be posted without providing input in the field.
Optional: Document can be posted with or without providing input in the field.
How field status variant look in sap
Field status conflicts between posting key and field status group
Field status is also controlled by posting key.
Read about posting key: http://sapconcepthub.com/posting-key-controls/
For a particular field, status in posting key might be different from status in field status group.
Then sap finalized the status in below order:
First priority Suppress: If the field status is 'suppress' in any of the two (posting key and field status group). Field statis suppress prevails while posting document.
Second priority Display: If the field status is 'display' in any of the two (posting key and field status group). Field status display prevails while posting document.
Third priority Optional: If the field status is 'optional' in any of the two (posting key and field status group). Field status optional prevails while posting document.
Last priority Required: This field status gets the last preference.